The Cosmos

Exposed and Explored

Ancient Bharat cosmography has never been a popular subject among scholars, mostly due to its immense complexity and unconscionably vast architecture. The likelihood of deterrence is boosted by difficulties of their translation. Major part of Bharat texts turn out to be incomprehensible to us due to inadequacy of our knowledge (as scientists admit, our coverage about cosmos barely touches a ceiling of 5% of the proposed model of universe even after leveraging latest equipment). Also, since the language Bharat archives are inscribed in, Sanskrit itself, has undergone continuous restructuring throughout its journey, very often we end up with absolutely wrong interpretation which only makes the content more confusing. One common mistake most of the transcriptions commit, is that, instead of trying to decode the records and enhance prevalent concept, they try to fit everything within the perimeter of a confined framework. These kind of faults has turned out to be very fatal as they led the most exhaustive compilation of universe to convert into a laughing stock.

Picture 1: These are the images of NGC 1512. Seven b/w images above are actual photos captured by Hubble at different wavelengths. First they are combined and then color filters get applied on the combined image. And then, the cgi-enhanced image is released for public view. (For a simulation, visit:

Before proceeding with this article, I would like to request the reader to avoid quick conclusions like “pseudo-science” or “fiction” , because scope of this particular topic belongs to outside of academic textbooks. In case any confusion arises, please do a research – look for information in internet, go through some scientific journals, do some calculation yourself. Objective of this article is not to contradict science. The stunning advancement of human technology in recent days is undeniable, but it is also true that we know very little of our universe – almost nothing. Probably it will sound unbelievable that almost 99% of modern pictures of cosmic objects are actually artists’ imagination. Actual images, which were taken by space telescopes, are literally little more than a blurry point of light on a photographic plate (refer Picture 1 for a sample illustration). Any pictorial representation of anything outside our solar system, are nothing more than a piece of art which adheres to some particular set of specifications. So, while scientists are still dealing with different innovating concepts to explore more about the universe, there is absolutely no logical benchmark to decide whether the Bharat model of Cosmos is true or false. Let us exclude the assumption of us being the most advanced generation ever and analyze the ancient texts from a learner’s point of view. Hence, while going through the Bharat scriptures, instead of comparing them with popular artworks of galaxies or nebulae, if we can try to re-model the entire cosmos, we will get an astounding simulation of universe. And who says, even if it does feel like a very impossible theory today, someday in future, it will not be embraced by scientists whole-heartedly ?

Clarifying Common Confusions

The first obstacle which comes into our path is the understanding of different terms of the narration. Unlike modern astronomy, Bharat texts did not categorize cosmic objects into Planets/Stars/Galaxies etc. Instead, there are phrases like “Loka” , “Puri” , “Parvata” , “Sagara” , “Barsha” etc. Needless to say, taking into account their literal equivalents will not make any sense. It seems like, it is not possible to describe many aspects of the universe using our common vocabulary; so, ancient scientists have used the best correlated word. Unavailability of exact expression in human glossary had forced the narrators to scribble down all descriptive attributes in form of adjectives, it will be more fruitful to concentrate on them. In the scripts, the term “Loka” is used in a broader sense than “Barsha” , which, in turn indicates something wider than a “Puri” . The term “Sagara” comes closer to the concept of cosmic voids. “Parvata” signifies boundary or highly dense region. This will be covered in details as we move ahead in this article.

Bharat cosmography uses a unique unit as measurement: “Yojana” . Different notions have come up with different figures as an attempt to convert “One Yojana” into modern units. But almost every one of them has failed so far to describe entire system. Same problem exists with different mathematical and directional statements also. Another critical confusion arises with understanding of chemical naming convention for elements, compounds and mixtures. For the sake of not engaging ourselves into an endless debate regarding remapping those keywords with modern terms, let us focus primarily on drawing out the substance of the texts i.e. the relative structure of the universe.

“Prithwi” is not just Planet Earth

As a Human Being, our study of universe should start with our homeland, the planet Earth. From innumerable references of different habitable zones in universe mentioned in the scripts, it is very difficult to pin-point which one exactly refers to our home-planet. Description of cosmos in Bharat scripts begins with “Prithwi” , a concentric arrangement of seven islands, each of which is surrounded by one ocean. Though we usually assume “Prithwi” as synonymous to planet Earth, a careful look reveals that, this is actually misleading. The depiction of “Prithwi” yields no similarity with shapes of any of the landmasses on today’s Earth. Neither there is any geological proof for Earth ever maintaining such an isometric geography. Using software simulation, now it has become possible to reconstruct Earth’s tectonic map up to 3.5 Billion years ago. Not even one of the outputs resembles any similar geometric pattern. Apart from it, due to constant relative displacement of rigid lithosphere and plastically flowing asthenosphere, the continental and oceanic plates go through a slow but gradual transformation. Hence it is also not possible for them to retain the same arrangement over a long period of time. Going by the texts, each of those mentioned “Island” -s appear to be double by area than the previous one in order. This cannot be possible if they reside on one spherical globe.

A handful of the translations start with assuming that this septenary arrangement refers to solar system, where the “Island” -s are represented by the orbital planes of different planets. But, ancient astronomers have mentioned detailed description about planetary motions as observed from the ground. They have even specified that all the planets and other cosmic objects form only a part of “Prithwi” . Hence, the presence of separate terminology and specific passages for planets, clarifies that the phrase “Island” used to determine something else rather than a planetary system. Moreover, the orbital planes of the planets are not tilted against each other by more than a few angular degrees. But one part of Bharat narrations directly talks about one central region in “Prithwi” where no amount of cosmic rays is able to reach. That gives an impression of “Prithwi” as a spherical entity, which definitely does not sound like a planetary system.

Picture 2: Tuning Fork Diagram as designed by Edwin Hubble. It categorizes the galaxies into two major segments according to their shapes.

Some interpretations try to relate this model with present day Milky Way. Though it sounds more rational than the previous analogies, it fails to provide any explanation for most of the descriptive attributes as mentioned in the scripts. Not only Milky Way, as the Tuning Fork Diagram (introduced by Edwin Hubble) demonstrates, shape of any galaxy can either be spiral or elliptical. Mathematically there may be some odd irregular shapes in exceptional cases, but there is absolutely no chance of any single galaxy ever taking the form of such a complex layered structure. Since there is enough evidence that ancient astronomers possessed profound knowledge about distant galaxies and cosmic cycles (explained in details in my other article: A Detailed History of Time – From Multiverse to Quantum), the probability for them committing such a basic mistake about the shape of Milky Way is very low.

The said model seems to give much importance on two cosmic substances – “Surya Mandala” and “Chandra Mandala” . In accordance with bibliographical conversion of the words “Surya” and “Chandra” as Sun and Moon respectively, common presumption is that aforementioned duo actually refer to the solar and lunar orbital planes. But it deems untrue, since none of the narratives matches with any property of actual Sun and Moon. Moreover, since the archives not only strictly places “Chandra Mandala” beyond “Surya Mandala” , but also goes on to elaborate their relative positions as part of extra-terrestrial galactic families, we can consider that both these terms actually refer to some deeper cosmic cycles rather than a mere Sun or Moon.

Portrayal of this septenary system suggests a really large-scale entity. The texts declare that the boundary of “Prithwi” determines the maximum extent science can explore or analyze. The frequent interpretation of this proclamation being same as visual range of naked eye (from Earth), seems to be an error due to the fact that Bharat scripts are never known to render a geocentric or heliocentric perception. As discussed in my other article, ancient Bharat scientists used to keep precise track of every minute movement of multitude of stars, constellations, nebulae or galaxies, implying that they were very well aware of true nature of diverse cosmic objects in deep space. Taking into account the astonishing accuracy of their astronomic computation, we can come to a conclusion that it is also indeed legitimate when they mention each and every one of those cosmic objects is contained within this seven-tier scheme. Which ascertains that the concentric design is something of much larger scale than a planetary system or even a galaxy cluster. That means, what we are going to derive is absolutely mind-blowing; it looks like that the concept of “Prithwi” was set to refer the universe itself (to be more specific, the “Observable Universe” ).

The “Observable” Universe

There is a fundamental difference between ancient Bharat and modern science about the idea of observable universe. Today’s idea of observable universe defines one imaginary spherical region (Picture 3) in space containing all those objects, which ones can theoretically be observed from Earth; though some of the objects within the “Observable” sphere can still not be recognized because of their extreme red-shift in Doppler band. Hypothetically, there are numerous other objects outside this region, from which, no amount of light or any kind of electromagnetic wave has ever been able to reach Earth because of their sheer distance. Not only that, since the universe is expanding, the recessional velocity with respect to Earth is also gradually increasing. That means any object can go beyond the boundary of this spherical region even if their co-moving distance from Earth remains constant.

Picture 3: Pictorial depiction of modern concept of Observable Universe. Our solar system stays at the center. We don’t know what lies beyond this hypothetical sphere.

Instead of this imaginary volatile boundary which is extremely sensitive to observer’s position in cosmos, “Prithwi” defines one strictly rigid real time component of the universe. The said component defines that part of cosmos which is perceivable to human beings. Anything beyond its boundary falls outside of the coverage of our known science and mathematics. This statement helps to unambiguously conclude that, “Prithwi” is that part of universe which can be observed; i.e. “Prithwi” is actually the “Observable Universe” . Not only defining a boundary, the scripts go on to tell that the mentioned boundary is not something like a membrane, instead the boundary signifies one gradual transitional region.

As mentioned before, due to erroneous translation, very often we fail to interpret actual meaning of the narratives. Instead of today’s heliocentric bottom-up model (which starts considering solar system as central point and then exploring outer space), those ancient records attempt to analyze the observable universe by using a top-down approach. At first, they provide an overview of high-level layout of it, followed by exploring successive layers of details in a hierarchical manner. Ancient Bharat morphological study suggests that majority of matter of observable universe had been confined into seven concentric belts due to cosmic scale mass distribution. Archives mention each of those material belts as “Island” . Needless to repeat, taking into account the literal meaning of an island will not make any sense here. This specific labeling signifies one important aspect about the observable universe: each of these belts are surrounded by a huge super-void. In astronomy, a void represents vast span of space containing very few or no galaxies. These super-voids are so big compared to normal ones, that the ancient scientists correlated them with “Ocean” , thus highlighting their enormity. A fact needs to be clarified, none of the “Island” -s are one single object. They can be illustrated best as groups of galactic super-clusters, bound together by Gravitational force fields. If the texts can be analyzed and plotted by using software aided design technique, then we will end up with an exhaustive 3-D map of our universe.

Nucleus of this seven-layered design, “Jambu” belt, is divided into 7 sectors by six galactic sheets lying along side each other. Instead of a straight ‘wall’, those galactic sheets feature a crescent-like shape. Those sheets get shorter in length as we move towards the edge of the belt starting from the middle, which let us conclude that shape of this belt is like a spherical shell. The middlemost sector is further sub-divided into 3 by two more sheets, stretching perpendicularly with the previous ones, increasing the count of sectors up to 9. Those sectors are constituted by interconnected complex cosmic superstructures; almost every major ones of which are already marked by unique caption in ancient Bharat astronomical catalog. Outer limit of this belt is marked by the edge(s) of mentioned galactic sheets, which gradually fades into the super-void.

Picture 4: Cross-section of Seven-layered architecture of Observable Universe, as described in Bharat texts. Actually the Bharat texts have specified more detailed description. This is just to highlight the major divisions.

Bharat model of cosmos depicts each of these sectors of “Jambu” belt as being constituted by several zones, which are separated from each other by cosmic voids. All these individual zones comprise of interconnected galactic filaments, linked together in such a way that resembles tree-like structures. As specified by the texts, in each zone, thousands of galactic filaments branch away from one central ‘spine’, either directly or indirectly. Similar filamentous architecture is present in the intermediate galactic sheets also, but with much higher amount of mass per unit space. Every single one of these zones as well as the galactic sheets go through deeper degrees of segmentation. Bharat texts divide the galactic filaments into super-clusters, then super-clusters into local clusters. Following this, the cosmic model goes into more granular elaboration while mentioning about galaxies, planetary systems, stars or planets.

The scripts have made it very clear that it is impossible to point out each and every cosmic object within one narration, since they are zillions in number. However, from whatever we had been able to translate from the texts, several cosmic objects seem to be explained with additional importance. One such instance tells about one dark cosmic object with an extremely high temperature in its surface, which is solid. This particular object has a molten core, which burns without any combustible element or compound. At first glance, this description may not seem to have any scientific significance, but one careful analysis will reveal that it perfectly matches with the attributes of a neutron star. A neutron star is super-hot (600000 K) but has extremely dense surface (with a rigidity much higher that any solid object available on Earth). Scientists have also come to a hypothesis that the a core of a neutron star might show the properties of a super-fluid. The only reference which does sound odd is the statement that this particular object is mentioned as dark. Usually, neutron stars are said to emit very high-frequency radiation and can be detected by scanners. But, as published in almost all popular international science journals, one research on gravitational wave acknowledges the possibility of a ‘black’ neutron star to exist.

While the description about macro-universe catches attention quite easily, very often the micro-model goes unnoticed. Those priceless manuscripts go on to confirm the existence of tens of thousands of elements, which form all these cosmic bodies (planets, stars, galaxies etc.) throughout the “Jambu” belt. Sadly, since only 100+ elements has been discovered or designed by scientists today, it is not possible to conceptualize the atomic structure for anything outside our periodic table. (There is an alternate model of Mendeleev’s periodic table, known as periodic spiral. Unlike the periodic table, this spiral is able to maintain its continuity. Please see Picture 5, it is clear that the spiral is not yet complete, so it has the scope for inclusion of new elements). This wider pool of stable atomic distributions makes it imperative that there will be broader family of compounds also. Though Bharat narrations do not provide any exclusive listing of all available compounds, they do specify that those compounds feature different physical properties. Bharat texts also go on to disclose the chemical composition of different regions of observable universe, but due to our inability to decrypt the technical terms used in ancient texts, it is yet not possible to translate them into modern language.

Picture 5: Periodic spiral. Though it is not as popular as Mendeleev’s Periodic table, it seems to be a better fit for advanced science. First, it does not suffer from discontinuity like periodic table. Second, it is evident that there is enough room for new elements. Needless to say, it is much better structured than periodic table

Another interesting feature of ancient Bharat model of cosmos is that, it repeatedly mentions that, galaxies, nebulae or other cosmic objects do not reside in a standstill position. While the large-scale landscapes like galactic sheets or walls apparently do not show any relative movement, smaller-scale components are said to be continuously channeling through from one region of universe to another. As per different parts of Bharat record, this process of matter transfer happens throughout entire observable universe. Though this ever-changing aspect of deep space map had been brought into light by recent astronomical studies, still, lack of direct proof forbidden it so far to overcome the boundaries of a hypothesis. On the other hand, Bharat scholars of ancient times came up with several identified patterns for those movements. In fact, they used to distinguish all those movements into different ‘stream’-s. Bharat chronicles provide us a long list of hundreds of such individual streams. They also explicitly mention about detailed trajectory of these streams; and exact locations where two or more of them meet.

While going to details of these ‘stream’-s, we get reference of certain subset of them flooding through specific regions of cosmos. Some of them are mentioned as changing direction and/or been divided after reaching certain cosmic objects. These descriptions indeed remind of something popularly known as energy jets or particle jets. All these jets are known as several light-years long. In addition to that, effect of energy jets can be felt by spaceships outside the atmosphere of Earth. As pointed out by researchers, these jets are formed by ionized particles which exhibit electromagnetic behavior when come in touch with magnetic fields of stars and planets.

The super-void surrounding the “Jambu” belt, is further enveloped by another material belt : “Plaksha” . Five more such spherical shells are present in the same manner, each separated by super-voids from immediate inner and outer layers. Though none of them has been described in as much details as “Jambu” belt, the texts confirm that arrangement of large cosmic structures (sheets, filaments etc.) follow the same pattern. All these cosmic material belts contain their own collection of galactic ‘stream’-s, energy jets and other cosmic objects. As the Bharat model specifies, span of any material belt is double than the immediate inner ones; and span of any super void is same as the material belt it encircles. All these belts consist of myriads of Galaxies, Clusters and Planetary systems. In an attempt to specify their count, the texts use the exact word: ‘innumerable’, and specify that it is impossible to describe every single one of them. On a closer analysis, the narrative of countless worlds floating across this septenary layout, actually mirrors the scientific portrayal of universe as of today, where everything starting from planets to galaxies is spread across huge vacuum. The fact is exclusively scripted that all measurements and elaborations about the observable universe were primarily attained by comprehensive research and mathematical precision. Bharat scripts have mentioned that it is not possible to obtain direct evidence for certain aspects of universe; logical deduction is the only way to get an idea about them.

Aliens Indeed Exist

Are we alone in this universe?” : this is one of the most intriguing questions of today, in fact, it is the eternal quest of human mind. To make our voyage of searching for alien life forms a step further, our scientists and astronomers are scanning the stars in deep cosmos. The surprising silence in our cosmic neighborhood has raised famous theories like ‘Fermi Paradox’. So far, limitation of today’s technology has restrained us from approaching outside of our Solar system to actively search for extra-terrestrial life and we still need to depend on passive method of signal processing. In spite of lack of direct evidence till today, scientists have come up with a theory to compute the probability of universe having more living species. Considering the statistical analysis, at least 80% of 1024 stars have their own planetary system, where 25% of them have planets favoring atmospheric conditions for sustaining life like human beings. Fine-tuning the number further, approximately 10% of those planets are supposed to reveal geographical similarity with Earth, giving us a number as huge as 1022 such planets. Taking into account the survival factor and the evolutionary curve of living beings to become intelligent enough for establishing an interstellar communication channel, still it gives us no less than 1020 potential habitable zones in the universe. In the first scientific meeting of SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence), one probabilistic argument, namely the ‘Drake Equation’ was put forward to summarize the likelihood of us being able to detect any alien communication signal. Though a good number of criticisms have already taken place against the values of all the factors considered in the equation, still it produces a possibility of no less than 1000 intelligent species in the Milky Way itself.

(Please scroll/swipe left/right to view full table)

TABLE 1 – The Drake Equation

N = R٭ * fp * ne * fl * fi * fc * L
  • Average rate of star formation in our galaxy
  • Original Estimate is 1 new star formation a year, on an average throughout the lifetime of Milky Way
  • Revised calculation is 0.68 – 1.45 M of material i.e. 1.5 – 3 new star formations a year, assuming new star mass is 0.5 M
  • Fraction of newly formed stars that have a planetary system
  • Original estimate is that 20% – 50% of newly formed stars will have planetary system
  • Revised analysis of microlensing surveys discloses that its value may approach 1. In other words, stars are orbited by planets as a rule, rather than an exception
  • Average number of planets that can potentially support life per planetary system
  • Original estimate is 1 – 5 potential habitable planets per planetary system
  • Based on astronomical study, revised estimate suggests 3 – 5 potential habitable planets per planetary system
  • Fraction of habitable planets where evolution has already kicked off
  • Original estimate is 100%; that means if any planet can host life, life will definitely follow an evolutionary path there
  • Revised estimate takes into account the geological evidence of Earth and the anthropic bias, and suggests that the value will indeed be high, if not 100%
  • Probability of intelligent species to appear in the planets where evolution has kicked off
  • Original estimate is 100%; that means if the evolution process starts, ultimately it will end up to species having some degree of intelligence
  • This value considers too many factors and remains controversial till now. Some prefer to assign a low value to it while rest thinks that its value should be approaching 100%
  • Fraction of civilizations being able to release detectable signs of existence into space
  • Original estimate is that, 10% – 20% of all intelligent life forms may possess the capability of interstellar communication
  • This also still remains as an area of controversy, since we are not able to speculate beyond Earth-based technology
  • Length of time for which such civilizations release detectable signals into space
  • Original estimate is 1000 to 100,000,000 years
  • Though some scientist prefer to put a value as low as somewhere between 300 – 400 years, depending on average duration of advanced civilizations of Earth; others argue that a civilization not necessarily need to be built up by organic species, machines or artificial intelligence can also come into picture
  • Number of civilizations in our galaxy with which communication might be possible
  • The Drake equation can produce a very wide range of values, depending on the assumptions, since the values are not well established unambiguously. According to Frank Drake, the inventor of this equation, number of advanced civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy should lie somewhere between 1000 and 100,000,000

While science still relies on hypothesis and mathematical possibility to deal with extra-terrestrial life, ancient Bharat chronicles mention about not one, but at least 30 major categories and hundreds of sub-categories of alien species. The incredible knowledge of ancient Bharat begs to differ from that of today’s cosmologists while describing about origin of life in universe. According to biology, life was formed as a result of chemical reactions of inorganic molecules in one ‘favorable’ environment. But ancient scrolls of Bharat negates this idea. They say that life was not just an accident, instead, it was present right from the beginning of the universe. After starting its journey at the creation of this universe, life has emerged in different zones, with different physical attributes. Some of living species marked their distinct footprint right from the beginning; others diverged from one common parent at some point of time. According to the texts, throughout the tenure of this universe’s existence, life may transform into unusual patterns, life may assume different hosts; but life will never go extinct.

Ancient catalogs of Bharat specifically points out that not only there is abundance of extremely advanced alien civilizations in this universe, those civilizations feature a broad category of diversities also. In fact, Bharat texts actually specify a number as huge as 8.4 X 105 to indicate total number of species in our universe. Different extraterrestrial races differ from each other by their appearance, physiology, biochemistry, genetics or even lifespan. It may sound like a direct contradiction with science, since scholars usually assume that in the entire universe, only Earth holds that specific biochemical atmospheric condition which can host life. Conventional theory identifies water, oxygen, light and carbon as mandatory ingredients along with Earth’s so-called ‘special’ position which allows optimal temperature and other attributes to support life. But, with latest discoveries, these old notions are gradually becoming obsolete. Neither of the aforementioned five parameters are something exclusive; scientists now-a-days firmly believe that life can bloom out of elsewhere in universe, probably in the weirdest form ever.

It becomes evident from ancient records that physical structure of any living being is formed by the atoms and molecules which are flowing across the universe through galactic filaments. The ancient narrations mention that those materials are triggered across cosmos as a result of Cosmic explosions. Surprisingly, modern science mimics the same statement while describing how the elements had become available throughout entire universe. As lab simulations and astronomical analysis indicate, after getting created as a result of continuous nucleo-synthesis within stellar cores, atoms of all 92 natural elements of our periodic table are being sprayed across as a result of Supernova explosions.

One of today’s most fascinating topic seems to be our quest to find a peer in the universe. Bharat scrolls confirm about existence of human-like civilizations out there. This claim of abundance of human-like beings throughout the universe may raise some eyebrows. But, we must keep in mind that, any expectation for finding out living beings with similar physical attributes in two remote corners of the universe is least likely to be fulfilled. Instead, to find out closest relatives to humankind, something more generic like the bio-structure seems to be a better fit. In order to verify scientific plausibility of these ancient texts of Bharat, we should start with a scan for other carbon-based species. Surprisingly, even according to modern research papers, Earth is not the only planet which can host Carbon-based life. A study on meteorites (those which makes it until ground), discloses that despite being originated in outer space, they contain traces of amino acid and carbon rings, which are building blocks of composite living species. As almost all scientists agree upon, primary ingredient of life as on Earth, the element Carbon, is ubiquitous in the interstellar spaces. In addition to that, transformation of newborn planets usually results in creation of liquid water, making water as one of universally available compounds. The ability of water to dissolve a diverse set of polar and non-polar compounds in a broad temperature range, sparks a quite high possibility of other carbon-based living species being triggered out of liquid water elsewhere in the universe, even if the atmospheric conditions can differ to a large extent as compared against that of Earth.

Picture 6: We have not yet found all possible combinations of proteins according to our genetic table. This picture describes a step-by-step procedure to come up to the aforementioned conclusion.

One crucial point to be noted that the Sanskrit term “Manava” , which is present in Bharat scriptures quite often, is not exact translation of ‘Human Beings’ . Actually, it seems to refer to any alien species also, whoever resembles genetic signature of us, the Homo Sapiens. Probably it is quite hard to even imagine that dwellers of other stellar systems actually belong to same genetic group as us. But, one thorough revision of biology makes it clear that, almost half the cells of our genetic table are yet to find any real life example. The explanation is quite simple; fundamental unit of any living tissue belongs to one specific category of organic molecules, commonly known as the “Protein” -s. As researches reveal, each protein chain can further be disassembled into smaller polymer units, called as amino acids. Specific selection and precise placement of these amino acid molecules within a protein structure are decided based on their 1-to-1 relationship with a chained sequence of triplets in DNA/RNA, usually labeled as “Codon” -s. A codon is a combination of three monomers, each independently selected from a set of four nucleotide (Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine and Thymine/Uracil). Although the theoretical possibility of 64 different Codons (1 Codon = 3 nucleotide monomers, each of which can be independently selected from a set of 4. So, total number of possible combinations = 4C1 X 4C1 X 4C1 = 43 = 64), indicate existence of at least 64 amino acids, till today, traces of only 20 amino acids have been found within living tissues. In principle, any of these 20 amino acid polymers can be replaced with some alternative that exist in nature (60+ types of amino acids have been traced in certain carbonaceous meteorites). It rises the possibility of existence of other alien race built upon slightly different genetic structure but with same set of nucleotide-s. Considering that each instance of human-like species is built up by one distinct set of 20 amino acids, we can easily find that total number of possible variations is quite high, which is synonymous as drawing a sample of size 20 from a set of 64 = 64C20 = 1.96 X 1016. To summarize, siblings of humankind can peek out from any remote corner of universe, which actually supports the narration of ancient Bharat scientists.

Along with the aforementioned “Manava” -s, we can find several mentions of other extra terrestrials too, who does not come even close to our genetic family; to name a few of them – “Danava” , “Daitya” , “Aditya” and many others. Usually, our ignorance to detailed interpretation of Bharat manuscripts resulted in wrong apprehension of all those Sanskrit keywords. (That’s why we always relate “Danava” -s with giants of fairy tale, or “Naga” -s with snakes.) Apart from representing a wide varieties of life form, Genetic hierarchy of Bharat model elaborates how and when each of the alien races were originated. For us, it may not be possible to imagine any genetic structure outside the scope of our genetic base. Still, a quick analysis reveal that an alien gene neither need to be fabricated by same set of nucleo-base, nor it is bound to follow same genetic formula as us. We already have seen the high likelihood of finding out species formed by same set of building blocks as us. So, we can easily estimate the probability of existence of alien beings formed by entirely different ingredients. Some of such possibilities are already being explored by modern science. To know more about them, please continue reading through this article. Major genetic divisions of Bharat model have been illustrated in Picture 7.

As we all know, human beings obtain necessary energy from Solar radiations. It is imperative that other carbon-based beings will also have dependency on similar type of radiations. But, Bharat model of Cosmos specifies that life forms in each material belt are powered by different types of GCR-s (Galactic Cosmic Ray), which emits from one central source in each belt. Since the range of today’s technology is too short to reach even the nearest neighboring galaxy, we cannot get any direct evidence of the said statement. But, in Earth itself, hard evidence for life based on non-solar energy had been acquired. During 2016, scientists had discovered a microbe (later named as “Desulforudis Audaxviator” ) 2.8 km. underground in a zone devoid of light, water, Oxygen and Carbon. That rod-shaped bacterium has paved way to its survival by indirectly absorbing uranium radiation. Considering the limited coverage offered by today’s technology, we can accept the statement that many more such instances lie ahead of us which we have not been able to identify yet.

Picture 7: Major genetic classifications as described in Bharat texts. Each of the light violet nodes represent wide varieties of genetic subset.

An elaborate scrutiny of Bharat records testifies that, life forms in different zones of the universe unveils contrasting physiology, anatomy, physical traits, ecosystem, nutrition : in one word, a distinct biological structure (Earthlings have a Carbon-based biological structure) altogether. Though in recent past, this claim of ancient Bharat texts sounded like a fairy tale, with latest simulations and experiments, scientific viability of non-carbon based biochemistry has been proven not for one, but for a handful of alternatives. Ability to produce molecules large enough to carry biological signature makes Silicon as the best candidate to take up Carbon’s role. It is true that Silicon is not anywhere near chemically versatile as Carbon in our Oxygen based biosphere. But, in an environment rich with Sulfur-based acids, Silicon compounds show better stability than Hydrocarbons. The next one in line to produce a fully functional astrobiology is Sulfur itself. Geo-chemical analysis of fossils found in Western Australia using Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, has led biologists to conclude that there is a possibility of sulfur-based microbial life to exist in Earth herself around 3.4 Billion years ago. Even today, traces of this life form can be found in hydro-thermal vents and hot springs. Hence they strongly believe in actual existence of Sulfur-based bio-signatures in any planet resembling similar atmosphere as early Earth. Another experiment in California’s Mono Lake has managed to capture existence of a stable Arsenic-based life form, termed as GFAJ-1 (which belongs to the category Gammaproteobacteria). Researchers observed that Phosphorous has been replaced by Arsenic as the backbone as well as energy carrying molecule of their DNA, and it works without any problem. Theoretically, these microbes can evolve into more composite species if they are kept on a diet having less Phosphorous and plenty of Arsenic. There are other plausible options also, though they are yet to have any real supporting evidence. One such rather odd instance is Boron, scarcity of which on Earth has become the biggest obstacle for any Boron-based life form to grow. However, Boron has strong tendency to form covalent bond with Nitrogen. The compounds Boron can make along with Hydrogen and Nitrogen show chemical and physical similarity with alkanes and hydrocarbons, with higher melting and boiling points. Boron is likely to produce a diverse and complex biological scheme at lower temperature, possibly Ammonia as a solvent. Scientists are also predicting that it is not necessary that life must be build on organic compounds. In a mission of creating an inorganic functional and structural duplication of actual biological cell, they actually have managed to create lifelike cellular units (iCHELL) out of metals.

Like Carbon and Sunlight, Oxygen or Water too, does not seem to be a compulsory prerequisite for life. The striking chemical similarity of Ammonia with water indicates that it can work really well as a suitable host of life. An ammonia environment has the capability to dissolve wider varieties of metal than its aqueous counterpart. Given a planet has atmospheric pressure like Jupiter or Venus, liquid Ammonia may very well suite as the life-hosting solvent even at temperature as high as 175o C. On the other hand, Ammonia can maintain its liquid state far below freezing point of water. Hence, as a solvent, Ammonia have a potential to support units of life even in a more extreme environment. Another compound deemed fit as water’s replacement is Methane. In a temperature as low as -2900 F, Methane-rich environment offers suitable condition for oxygen-free cells to evolve. Scientists are also looking for opportunities for other off-bit options like Hydrogen Fluoride as an igniter.

To sum up, existence of Human beings is neither special nor unique in this universe. With commencement of newer researches, scientists are now gradually shifting towards a theoretical landscape which gives enough room for multitudes of alien species. Even if there is not a single instance of direct communication till now, it does not deem appropriate today to trim out possibilities of other living beings sharing our universe.

The Center, and The Edge

From that very first day when early humans looked at the sky and started to wonder about it, the quest of finding out the center of observable universe permanently found its place within their subconscious. Starting from relating Earth synonymous with entire universe to conceptualizing the solar system, it took us about thousands of years. With technological enhancements, our knowledge about cosmos has been going through rigorous rectifications; and so did the predicted location of this hypothetical center of universe. In early 19th century, scientists considered core of Milky Way as the center of universe; later with continuous discovery of more and more stellar super-clusters, its position could never come to an overall agreement. Now, with worldwide acceptance of Big-Bang theory, the official statement of science concludes that there is no actual center of this homogeneous and isotropic mathematical model of universe.

Picture 8: Different simulations about geometry of the universe, as determined by density parameter Ω.

Modern scientists more or less agree that this failure of providing a satisfying answer of this paradox is primarily due to our lack of knowledge about cosmos. It is a fact that almost every bit of our database about the observable universe has been generated by mathematical modeling and simulations instead of direct evidence. Obviously, insufficient input data to any mathematical function often results in unrealistic or nondeterministic solutions. On the other hand, Bharat scriptures never happen to rely on formulae or predictions. They rather shed light on every part of our ‘observable’ universe from a third person view. Sophistication of Bharat model reaches to such a level that, not only it defines and locates the physical center, but it also comes up with both qualitative and quantitative measures for the same.

The Bharat records define the observable universe neither as homogeneous nor as isotropic. As per the description, the center, or to be more specific, the core of our observable universe is located at the focal point of the septenary architecture. Density of matter and energy is of much higher value in the surrounding region of this core, as specified. Arrangement of Galactic filaments start to resemble much more complex and compact designs as we move towards the core, which is described as ‘golden ball of fire without flame’. The core itself, also has been elaborated in great details, but it appears that the true nature of it is yet to find a place in modern encyclopedia. This core is said to have four different kind of effects on life forms and their evolution in the entire observable universe. The core not only acts as the center, entire observable universe is said to be created from this core. Fascinating point to be noted that, the texts mention that it is possible to come up with more than one structural prototype of the core, while every single one of them can be true. Going by all granular details about it, it seems that the core also contains an inter-dimensional gateway across this fourteen-layered multiverse, the design of which has been drafted in ancient Bharat records, as this article will cover later.

Just like the core, scientific theories could never come to an agreement while concluding about “Edge of the Universe” . The widely accepted isotropic model as per the “Cosmological Principle” rules out any possibility of universe having an edge at all. But it contradicts with another established concept, the “Expanding Universe” , which states that the universe, which was created by an explosion out of a singularity, is still expanding; the term “expanding” being a clear indication of a definitive boundary. However, major scientific derivations are based upon a concept of dynamically evolving edge, namely the “light-cone” framework, which is a 2D plot of causality of a specific event, against space-time axes. On the other hand, Bharat model talks about an unbounded and finite observable universe, having one unambiguous boundary. The texts even go on to elaborate about the boundary also, whose inner side can be scientifically apprehended, but the other side is beyond any kind of analytical approach. We see clear affirmation that no kind of particle or energy wave can reach the other side of the “Edge”. Since the texts represent a picture of a spherical universe (with detailed measurements) instead of of an hyperbolic of flat model, it looks like that the records have actually mentioned about the positive curvature of space here, while talking about the said boundary. Along with specifying about the core and the edge, Bharat text also talks about a set of four axes between them which maintains the stability of our observable universe.

Beyond the Observable Universe

The word ‘multiverse’ refers to that bigger expanse, the new totality of reality, and our universe would be just a piece of that larger whole.” – says Brian Greene, the famous physicist, and the Chairman of World Science Festival. While talking about that part of reality which we can never be able to see with our latest advancement of science, he mentioned that there may exist many other universes, just like our own. He is not the lone believer of presence of other worlds, almost all leading scientists and institutions have approved the idea of co-existence of multiple universes, or in short, multiverses. More than one theoretical schemes have been devised to elaborate the concept. A good number of them considers that the physical laws may be different in each one of them, some of them even supports existence of higher dimensions.

Picture 9: One approximate simulation of how the Bharat model of multiverse might look like

In spite of stunning progress of astronomy in last couple of decades, no illustration seems to be able to provide a complete tour of Multiverses yet. But, this lack of satisfaction can be quenched by a detailed view of Bharat narrations. They talk about a conclusive architecture of a fourteen-layered multiverse, with each layer residing in different dimensional planes, and thus pertaining to different independent realities. The aforementioned universe humankind belong to, is part of one such dimensional plane. Though other planes are not elaborated in this much details, we can get a summarized view for each of them. The remarkable attribute of this design of Multiverse is that, instead of a sole dependency on mathematical modelling like today, they seem to be derived from an independent observer’s point of view. Due to this reason, theoretical paradoxes like existence of modal realism do not arise. All these dimensional realities, in spite of being dissimilar, are not disconnected with each other. On the contrary, they are mentioned to be organized in a clearly explained hierarchical adjacency. Even if they continue to exist alongside each other, Bharat journals specify that it is not possible to cross the dimensional barrier using conventional technology.

The texts mention that the outer dimensional planes are also composed of sub-layers or “Band” -s. Instances retrieved from a portion of these texts build up another sketch of one such outer-dimensional place, where each band wraps around one another, vibrating. Most notable of them, the “Surya” band, is said to be the foundation of the triad of dynamic dimensional planes (three of these aforementioned dimensional planes go through intermediate cycles of transformation). Apart from that, this particular band has also been mentioned as to maintain the causality across this subset. The next one in line, the “Chandra” band, acts as the “container” of the observable universe. The band “Chandra” has also been marked as to complement the “Surya” . Together, these two bands used to get additional importance in Bharat model of Cosmos. There exist another eight more such “Band” -s which are exclusively mentioned in Bharat scriptures. A considerable amount of illustration is available, shedding light on all of them. But, they appear to be too ahead of our today’s knowledge and imagination. As mentioned before, three dimensional planes among these fourteen, feature a cyclic pattern of transformation. Other than these three, rest of this 24-D continua follows a comparatively static state throughout the duration of Multiverse.

Picture 10: Bubble Universe : To some extent, cosmologists and astronomers have also agreed to Bharat Model of Cosmos

One fundamental difference between today’s scientific Multiverse models and Bharat version of the same is how they consider the aspect of “Time” in respective models. Modern scientific approaches usually fuse time with three spatial dimensions to come up with a four dimensional manifold. In these simulations, time does not exist without presence of the universe. But the Bharat model places time as an independent parameter which spans across, and even far beyond the Multiverse structure. Throughout entire library of Bharat records which tell countless life-cycles of multiverse, there is no single instance of any starting or finishing point of time. Though time has been described as absolute, texts do specify that time flows differently in different dimensional layers (In one instance in Bharat narrations, the phenomena of Time Dilation has been referred).

Another aspect where the Bharat model follows a different direction compared to science, is the conceptualization of dimensions. Usually, scientific approaches localize the observable universe within a subspace of 4 ( 3 for space + 1 for time) dimensions. And usually every principle considers extra dimensions as some entity disconnected from our reality. The mostly studied M-Theory (which talks about an 11-D universe) comes up with a possibility that the additional dimensions may be curled-up in extremely tiny scales and that is why they remain hidden to almost all scientific experiments; while some other theories talk about large extra dimensions which are entirely separated from the proposed 4-D framework. In fact, ancient Bharat educational system went on to develop an entire enumerationist discipline of study to elaborate the 24-D fabric of this multi-layered continua, each level of which is bound by different set of topology and physical constants. This robust framework is able to elaborate every living and non-living units of this multiverse. Bharat researchers does not seem to approve today’s perspective of analyzing space, that is, to divide the same into three directional vectors and labeling them as spatial dimensions. Instead, according to Bharat texts, diversity of this multiverse has been formed due to different arrangement or combination of all 24 dimensions.

Picture 11: Sculpture of ‘Sesha’. The astonishing similarity with modern symbol of infinity is notable.

Though the concept of Multiverse has been introduced in mainstream science very recently, we don’t get any clue about the limit or border of the multiverse. The reason is simple, whole concept of Multiverse in science is being represented by a bunch of mathematical functions. Since our calculation system is based upon measurements across three directional spatial vectors, they become useless on a landscape that goes beyond the spatial reference frame. The astonishing fact is, Bharat model is able to describe the multiverse also from the viewpoint of an independent observer. Just like elaborating about the boundary of observable universe, Bharat texts talk about a perimeter of the Multiverse too. Circumference of this entire 24-D system is formed by a stack of seven non-identical, uniform and unblended dimensional membranes. Bharat texts particularly have mentioned that, not only our own universe, the entire Multiverse is contained within one ‘Bubble’. Although modern science has embraced the Big Bang theory wholehearted, still this idea of ‘Bubble’ holds its ground among many other possible alternatives.

The Bharat text did not give a smallest pause after providing such a robust systematic view of the Multiverse, which resides in the form of a bounded fabric. They went on to continue elaborating about what is beyond it. They mention that trillions and trillions of more such units of Multiverse (contained within dimensional membranes) reside on a “Bulk” , which is well beyond the 24-D framework even. All these units float and drift in the “Bulk” like bubbles in a sea. In other words, what Bharat texts seem to derive, look like a model of “Bubble Multiverses” .

Picture 12: One scientific model of Multi-Dimensional Concept – Popularly known as Calabi-Yau manifold

Bharat texts detail out a “Base” in the architecture. According to the scriptures, the “Base” literally supports and holds all these Bubble-Multiverses. The “Base” has been described as a separate entity which exists outside the fourteen-layered system. The texts have allocated two unique and very important attributes about the “Base” – that it is both eternal ( “Shesha” ) and infinite ( “Ananta” ). As the Bharat records illustrates, while entire Multiverse goes through repeated cycles of creation and dissolution, the “Base” remains non-impacted. After the grand dissolution of the Multiverse, the “Base” is the only entity that continues to maintain its distinct identity. Even today, the symbol of infinity () seems to be identical with the pictorial representation of the “Base” , which is still available in abundance across the corners of India.

Both the “Bulk” and the “Base” used to get special significance in Bharat scriptures. While the “Bulk” has been referred as the Primary source of all those Bubble-Multiverses, the “Base” is said to be the limit of anything we can think of. Both of them are narrated not only as unquantifiable, but they go past any qualitative illustration too. Records tell that it is not possible to scientifically represent either of them, since they are beyond any logical analysis. Both of them remains unaffected by any kind of causality. There is only one piece of Sanskrit text Bharat scholars used to refer either of them : “O-BANG-MANAS-GOCHAR” (अबान्ग्मनस्गोचर); which literally means The Entity which cannot be elaborated or even imagined. In fact, texts also conclude that both of them actually represent the same primary factor of everything, which, as per the description, appears to be the singularity scientists fascinate about so much now-a-days. It may sound strange, but today’s science is also inclining towards the same endpoint (read: The Anthropic Principle) which was inscribed during a time unbeknownst to anyone.

Picture 13: Bharat texts have specified the end of logical and experimental deduction – The ‘Paramanu’, which is said to be smallest possible entity

Another interesting angle of Bharat narrations is, they seem to provide similar focus on sub-atomic worlds also. As usual, in this stream too, Bharat records talk about a model which surpasses that of today to a very high degree. Our latest atomic model attempts to dissect the observable molecules into smaller units – atoms, sub-atomic particles or quarks, in that order. According to the theory of interchangeability between energy and mass, it is imperative that this hierarchical splitting procedure will stop at that tiniest, indivisible particle (i.e. the quantum mass), which is formed when an extremely high amount of energy is concentrated. But it is yet to connect the dot – how and when that very initial particle marked its footprint. Till now, scientists are not able to properly establish any measurement of “Quantum Mass” , i.e. that amount of mass which cannot be further broken down into smaller particle. By definition, any attempt to segregate the quantum mass will provide an output in terms of energy. This basic question is answered in Bharat model, but, ambiguity lies in the mathematical operators used. Ancient knowledge of Bharat used to be passed down from generations to generations verbally, probably to avoid any loss or tampering of any phonetic information. Hence, there is no pictorial representation available in the text formats. All mathematical operations has been described in words. Since the language of inscription itself has been highly mutated with respect to what it was originally, it has become extremely difficult to extract the essence. Bharat texts talk about the smallest unit of mass as “Paramanu” , while also declaring the same as which cannot further be divided. Sounds like this concept is not synonymous as “Atom” as we usually think today, instead, they come closer with the explanation of “Quanta” . Ancient scientists of Bharat has derived the definition of “Paramanu” by analyzing the output produced after passing a “beam” through slit-s (Slit = as in double-slit experiment. Anyway, it is just a close analogy). Exact configuration parameters for either the beam or the slit are yet to be finalized. Still, attributes of the “Paramanu” have been developed in these records with precision. Most interesting piece of information is, though a “Paramanu” has real existence, it cannot be observed by any means. This statement seems to refer to the weird behavior of quantum objects, when they get affected by just an act of observation. The “Paramanu” marks the limit of experimental approach of study (which is particularly highlighted in Bharat texts). For sake of theoretical dissection, if we try to look within a “Paramanu” , we will end up dealing with dimensions themselves. Bharat texts have placed a “Paramanu” 10 points above individual dimensions on a quantum tomography scale, however, it is unclear exactly which tomographical methods/operators had been put into action. Sub-atomic world in Bharat texts is constructed by “combination” of “Paramanu” -s, not “arrangement” of the same. A careful study of the terms used in the texts, gives a approximate idea how the quantum world in Bharat texts manage to blend into macro-universe, so that there is absolutely no need to have two different cluster of rules like today (i.e. Classical physics and Quantum physics). This remarkable hierarchical set of standards, which constitutes the reference frame of measuring every aspect of multiverse, seem to be based on distribution of energy levels in a closed-boundary system. Unfortunately, there is too little advancements we have managed to made to truly understand the underlying principles.

No ‘Beginning’, Or ‘End’

The sound and profound depiction of an endless array of Bubble-Multiverses residing alongside each other probably have stunned you already. But, your astonishment will be magnified after finding out that this is still not the concluding chapter of ancient Bharat cosmology. After proudly announcing about an infinitely expanded family of Multiverses, the Bharat model appends that each of them can be compared like a “blink” on the aforementioned “Bulk” . Each of these Multiverses comprising of all those dimensional layers and all, cease to exist after certain period of time. According to the prevailing idea of modern cosmology, our universe goes through self-sustaining cycles of creation and destruction. This full-proof theory appears like a mere prototype when we see that Bharat intellect already have thought off and even extended this concept to apply in case of entire set of Bubble-Multiverses. Not only that, the texts clarify that there was no absolute beginning of these self-sustaining cycles, neither there will be any end to it. In my other article, “A Detailed History of Time, From Multiverse to Quantum” , details is provided about the zillion-year long cycles Bharat texts talk about.

Picture 14: The creation and existence of our multiverse is nothing but a handful of waves. It is both nimble and temporary like wave ripples on an ocean

The in-depth analysis of creation of the Multiverse in Bharat scriptures is based on vibrations and frequencies. As defined in ancient records, had it not been for vibration, there would have been no universe as we experience it. Adding more details to this statement, the texts announce that it is the variation in frequency which causes the diversity of universe : every single frequency defines one distinct identity. To a great extent, this concept is echoed by fundamentals of string theory. It all starts when the first “pulse” takes birth on a zero-entropy perfect equilibrium landscape i.e. the “Bulk” . It is still an unsolved puzzle in science that how the “pulse” is created, but this initial pulse holds a deeper significance than we can imagine. The “Bulk” not only is beyond measurement, but it is also beyond any descriptive attributes/adjectives, featuring a true “perfect equilibrium” stage. As soon as the first “pulse” occurs, very initial cosmic imbalance takes place, which gets propagated later on. Logically speaking, this very initial cosmic imbalance is the beginning of “measurable” entities. If our universe can be represented as a mathematical function (we can consider any one of those as described in String theory), this first “pulse” can be described as the algebraic root of that function. Just like a mathematical root, that very early cosmic imbalance gets transformed gradually to result into more complex dynamics. After that initial “pulse”, 24 dimensions start to be originated, along with four elemental “flavors” (the word “flavor” is not used in literal sense; it has a different significance in quantum physics). The texts have labelled those flavors as “Krishna” , “Sweta” , “Peeta” and “Rakta” , respectively. Though all these words have distinct meanings in everyday life, they are absolutely unrelated with this naming convention (this kind of naming is still followed even today also, e.g. to identify specific attributes of Quarks, scientist used the terms – Red, Blue and Green).

The dimensions come into picture in a well-defined succession. These individual dimensions carry the signature of that early “pulse”. Amalgamations of these dimensions give birth to the membranes around the multiverse, being formed in an order from outside to inside, followed by universal layers. That very early simple “pulse” happens to branch into more composite wave functions. Gradually all those composite wave functions start to combine with each other, which, in turn, have been producing quadrillions of unique vibrational states. As mentioned before, each vibrational state is identical to one individual real-time living or non-living entity in the entire universe, or multiverse.

Picture 15: One quite common and famous design tightly associated with Bharat Culture. It is said to represent the cosmos. However, true elaboration of this is yet to be demystified. Note the resemblance of this diagram with lotus petals. Bharat culture uses an analogy of lotus flower with the observable universe

To sum up, the universe as we experience it today, is fundamentally a bunch of waves featuring zillions of different frequencies. The only reason any two objects or forces are different from each other is that they belong to different vibrational state (i.e. frequency). And it all happens due to existence and transformation of an initial “pulse”. Yes, the entire multiverse is nothing more than a “pulse” when pitted against the “Bulk” . From our experience of everyday life, we know that any “pulse” or “wave” gets dissolved after a certain period of time. Interestingly, Bharat texts too, have used the word “Dissolution” instead of “Destruction”, to indicate the end of the multiverse. During this dissolution process, all these diverse vibrational states start to merge with each other. A close analogy would be, matters split into atoms, then atoms split into fermions and bosons, then they too split into quarks. This process continues until entire mass of universe is converted into energy (remember the formula – E = mc2). Once the universal layers cease to exist, the only remnants which still maintains distinct identity are the membranes. Even those too, start to dissolve according to reverse-hierarchical order and split into individual dimensions again. At the very end, all individual dimensions also cease to exist anymore and it all come down to that very initial “pulse” which created the multiverse. In one word, the “Dissolution” phase is exactly same as the “Creation” phase, except that it goes backward. The last trace of the multiverse, that “pulse” too gets dissolved in the “Bulk” . I am going to re-iterate, these cycles of creation and dissolution comes in an endless sequence; while there are countless numbers of such sequences that continue to happen parallelly.

The aforementioned “Blink” , i.e. the duration of the multiverse, defines a time period of 3.1 X 1014 years. Throughout this span, the multiverse goes through varied degree of cosmic reconstructions, each of which occurs at a regular interval. A deep analysis of these major phase divisions points out that the multiverse never reaches a standstill stage even for tiniest instance of time. This ever-changing nature of cosmos is particularly highlighted in Bharat scripts. Within one lifecycle of the multiverse, each layer go through their individual creation and dissolution stages many times, our own universe goes through 36,000 such sub-cycles. Even within one such sub-cycle, countless super-clusters, galaxies, constellations, stars or planets gets formed and destroyed countless times. That leads to the conclusion that, our little blue planet, which already is pretty insignificant in entire universe, just like millions and millions of her peers, can be considered a temporary inclusion within this billion-year scales. That is why the Bharat texts never mention anything about our planet Earth, or its location.

Probably you already have noticed that the creation and dissolution phases have been described in Present Indefinite tense. The reason is, this procedure is eternal, there is no absolute beginning or absolute end of this sequence. As explained before, there are countless multiverses which exists on the “Bulk“. Each of these instances have been preceded by and will be succeeded by infinite such different versions of the same. In a simpler language, the “Bulk” is like an ocean; on this ocean, countless bubbles of water pops-up and disappears within blinks of eye. Neither it is possible to count the bubbles in the ocean in a given time instance, nor it is possible to estimate the number of bubbles to have ever popped up at a specific point on the ocean.

Truth is Stranger than Fiction

Starting from very early days, Humankind have had a fantasy of very advanced alien civilizations, capable of carrying out feats which will seem like wizardry to us. Almost all major publishing houses across the globe dedicate one section for Science Fictions. But, those days are long gone when scientists used to snap away any theory claiming existence of extra-terrestrial civilizations, while believing in a notion that human beings are only sign of life in entire universe. Science has evolved; so did our idea about life in cosmos. Calculating the possibility of alien civilizations possessing magic-like ability or technology has already been granted permission to enter into the scope of serious consideration to scientists. Starting from early sixties in 19th century, till today, researchers have ended up with more than one prototypes to plot the curve of evolution across the universe. To name a few of parameters taken into consideration, we can mention rate of power consumption (Kardashev scale :- Nikolai Kardashev), amount of unique information available (Information Mastery:- Carl Sagan) or the ability of deal with particles (Microdimensional Mastery :- John Barrow).

Picture 16: Kardashev scale : It provided three broad categories to measure advancement of a civilization, based on annual power consumption. Later Michiko Kaku added two more categories.

Inter-galactic travel, space-time manipulation, making use of wormholes, access to quantum world, teleportation…. these are just a glimpse of most common predictions about the feats which may be achieved by advanced civilizations. And the shocking part is, each and every single one of these examples has been put forward by some of leading scientists. Topics which belonged to fairy tales one upon a time, are now getting backed up by hardcore physics. In order to build machinery to deal with all those scenarios, as all engineers agree upon, the biggest obstacle would be the power source. Even our latest nuclear reactors are not capable enough to produce power output of that margin. That is the reason scientists believe that we need another technological leap to reach to next level, and that revolution will entirely change our approach to harness energy. Be it some hypothetical mega-structure like Dyson sphere, or some futuristic technology like antimatter engines, or even some more practical approach like solar panels, major part of latest researches fall under the area of revolutionizing energy production. As Carl Sagan explained, humankind, with all their innovations and all, are yet to properly utilize all options of power-source available on Earth. Even though the term ‘nuclear energy’ has become quite familiar today, humankind had no idea about it before WWII. Innovative capability of human beings was so limited even in later half of nineteenth century, that, a bewildered Robert Oppenheimer ended up quoting a famous Sanskrit script from The Bhagabat-Gita : कालोऽस्मि लोकक्षयकृत्प्रवृद्धो लोकान्समाहर्तुमिह प्रवृत्तः (Now I have become Death, the destroyer of the worlds), after witnessing the a fraction of unleashed atomic power. Nuclear reactors are just the stepping stones, there exist a lot more such unexplored options we have no clue about. Needless to say, if such a ‘primitive’ (on Kardashev scale) society as us are able to tap into the atomic power core, any superior species can achieve something which is well beyond our imagination. (This transformation in our thought process seem to impact our global culture also, almost all sci-fi movies tell about artificial mega-structures built by advanced alien technology). So, no matter how wild a concept may sound at the first glance, there is a very high probability that it might be scientifically plausible, and any advanced species may very well be out there who already has implemented the concept for their regular activities.

The concept of superior alien beings capable of carrying out so-called ‘unimaginable’ feats are not a fairy tale anymore. Latest theories in Astronomy are actually cementing the realistic ground of this once-laughable statement. That is why it is good time to revisit the ancient scrolls of Bharat civilization (containing a universal history of Billions of years), where we get to know about zones of universe colonized by different species (that does not necessarily mean ‘conquering’ that zone by force). Through cross-references, it appears that different methods of terraforming came into picture in those zones. In fact, the texts maintain a catalog of several hundreds of such artificial megastructures, proudly marking their presence across the universe. This information, which itself is fantastic enough to appear like out of reach of our latest technology, will feel like nothing when we come across some exclusively highlighted ‘campaign’-s or ‘project’-s executed by superior civilizations (both individually and jointly). Many of them were so high by their intensity, complexity and magnitude that they impacted entire universe. Even ignoring innumerable references of inter-stellar travels, quite a handful of them talk about construction of “tunnel” -s or “bridge” -s across different dimensions (similar to speculative Einstein-Rosen bridge). Inter-dimensional transportation through the core of the universe also is one common instance scattered throughout the Bharat records. Almost each page of those texts cites about technological race among different species. Star wars too, are something that already happened in the past. Tales about them are still so hardwired with Bharat culture, that anyone just need to set a foot on that land to get a glimpse. A few unique sections contain narrations of re-designing significant part of cosmos itself (probably the work of any Type-IV or Type-V civilization of Kardashev scale). Though Bharat model of universe does not distinguish between species in terms of their advancement, they tell about beings with varied degree of capabilities in terms of power, information volume, mastery over sub-atomic particles and many other parameters.

Another unique derivation of Bharat model of Universe is the robust evolution model, namely, the “Chaturyugas” , which underlines that some of these civilizations are not able to maintain their consistency at the zenith of the evolutionary curve. This twofold multi-modal iterative distribution defines how each of the species go through an oscillating locus of evolution. During each iteration, the plot goes through four distinct stages featuring an overall descending trend-line. Once an iteration ends, the distribution is ‘reset’ to its initial position again. In other words, there is no need of so much boasting about our so-called ‘cutting-edge’ technology, even without taking into consideration about much evolved extra-terrestrial beings, the earthlings themselves had gone through many such pinnacles in the past. The bottom-line is, we are definitely not the smartest being; on the contrary, we still belong to the primitive stage on a technological scale.

Does it sound like a night-time story? too distant dream? or absolutely piece of S… ? Don’t worry, global societies on science and technology used to hold exactly the same opinion about airplanes until the year 1899.

Authentic? – Who is eligible to judge?

This article is focused on the astonishing vastness and intricacy of Bharat model of cosmos, but there is no way to deny the contribution of modern technology in our advancement today. Rise of technology was very crucial for transition of human mindset from superstitious beliefs into logical thinking. But advancement of science had its own pitfall. That is, humankind had been getting accustomed to assuming scientific theories as eternal truth. Any alternate version of hypothesis on most of already-established scientific concept started to invite crude criticism instead of a welcoming gesture from organizations. As a result, there remains very little space for any history-making, mind-blowing change of course to emerge. Scope of flexibility has become so narrow in today’s landscape, that, scientists used to literally suppress propositions originated outside of mainstream bodies. Quick tagging like ‘pseudo-science’ or ‘myth’ are being applied to a high extent to rule out contrasting notions. Thus, this excellent repository of ancient Bharat cosmology also got sidelined from academic limelight long ago. It is imperative to get rid of our stubborn attitude of rejecting viewpoints based on their non-compliance against a pre-assumed framework. We have forgot the basic principle of science, that it is destined to evolve over time. Irrespective of how flawless a theory may appear today, nobody can guarantee that it will not be obsolete tomorrow. As a reference, we can consider the Classical Physics (Newtonian Physics), which once had a rock-solid foundation; but is rapidly losing ground to Quantum Mechanics now-a-days. Likewise, instead of direct assumption of Bharat depiction of universe being only a fiction, we should do its comparative analysis against current scientific model to determine its plausibility.

As portrayed in this article, Bharat model of universe not only conforms to modern science, it is actually a very advanced version of the same. The fact, which alone is enough to put Bharat model of cosmos miles ahead of modern scientific counterpart, is, the approach to shed light on universal topography. Today’s model is able to render only a fragment of universe, and that too with a footnote stating inability of proper identification of 95% of ingredients of that fragment. On the other hand, Bharat model of cosmos presents an unambiguous sketch of overall structure of universe. Not even a single one among all scientific researches have managed to come to an inference for the Center or the Boundary, which are described in ancient Bharat texts in great details. Astronomical chart of ancient Bharat manages to provide distinct labeling of macro-level layers like super-clusters and filaments, which, our heliocentric structure is unable to even deal with. The great level of details Bharat narrations are able to provide about sub-micron world too, is way beyond the reach of our technology. Bharat narrations has a sound and proud declaration about the farthest extent of both macro and micro-verse. Multiverses, membranes, dimensional framework, bubble-verses, Quantum mass … everything seems to be so advanced that they remain just as a mathematical possibility till now in our journey of re-discovery of ancient knowledge. By looking at the limitation and uncertainty our scientific approaches suffer from, we can deduce that we are nowhere near yet to come up with any single evidence to challenge the authenticity of something as sophisticated as Bharat narrations. Until then, why can’t we put all puny criticism aside and concentrate on exploring the Bharat model in more details.

This ancient knowledge does not have much appeal to a considerable section of today’s intellectuals, probably because of extreme difficulty in deciphering the texts. At the preamble of this article, I already mentioned that the narrations are highly distorted over the course of time because the language used in Bharat culture, Sanskrit itself had been going through significant restructuring. Along with that, we need to keep in mind that some parts of that knowledge had also been lost due to almost a thousand year long political instability in India. Those two points, combined with limitation of our wisdom, have made it an almost impossible task to connect all dots and complete the Bharat model of cosmos.

Vayu Purana – Vyasdeva
Vishnu Purana – Vyasdeva
Katha-Upanishada – Vyasdeva
Organic synthesis in the interstellar medium by low-energy carbon irradiation – McBride EJ, Millar TJ, Kohanoff JJ.(J Phys Chem. 2013;117:9666–967)
On the origins of cells: a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes to nucleated cells. – Martin W (Russell M J.Phil Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2003;358:59–83)
Prokaryotic photosynthesis and phototrophy illuminated – Bryant DA, Frigaard N-U. (Trends Microbiol. 2006;14:488–496)
Modular Redox-Active Inorganic Chemical Cells: iCHELLs – Geoffrey J. T. Cooper, Philip J. Kitson, Ross Winter, Michele Zagnoni, De-Liang Long, Leroy Cronin (Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2011; DOI: 10.1002/anie.201105068)
Xenology: An Introduction to the Scientific Study of Extraterrestrial Life, Intelligence, and Civilization – Robert A. Freitas, Jr.

Reference Articles:
How Space images are enhanced before being released to public
Alien Life could feed on Cosmic Rays
Sulfur-Based life in Ancient Earth (?)
Discovery of “Arsenic-bug” by Nasa – Expands Definition of Life
Inorganic Life
Similarity of Life across Universe
‘Black neutron star’ discovery changes astronomy

Does the universe have an edge?
Continuous creation from Electric Plasma
Nobody knows what is Dark Matter
Drake Equation
Alternative Biochemistry
Dark Energy and Dark Matter
Dimensions – A Rough Overview
Observing the universe really does change the outcome

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